dg.o 2022: 23nd Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research

Conference Theme: Intelligent Technologies, Governments and Citizens

Seoul National University, South-Korea

June 15-17, 2022


Conference Website: http://dgsociety.org/dgo-2022/

Submissions: https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=dgo2022


The Digital Government Society (DGS) will hold the 23nd Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research – dg.o 2022, with a special focus on the theme Intelligent Technologies, Governments and Citizens”. Data and computational algorithms make systems smarter, but should result in smarter government and citizens. Intelligence and smartness affect all kinds of public values – such as fairness, inclusion, equity, transparency, privacy, security, trust, etc., and is not well-understood. These technologies provide immense opportunities and should be used in the light of public values. Society and technology co-evolve and we are looking for new wast to balance between them. Specifically, the conference aims to advance research and practice in this field

The dg.o conference series is an established forum for presentation, discussion, and demonstration of interdisciplinary research on digital government, ICT and public administration, political participation, civic engagement, technology innovation, applications, and practice. Each year the conference brings together scholars recognized for the interdisciplinary and innovative nature of their work, their contributions to rigor of theory and relevance of practice, their focus on important and timely topics and the quality of their writing.


IMPORTANT DATES

  •  January 20, 2022: Papers, workshops, tutorials, and panels are due
  •  March 1, 2022: Application deadline for doctoral colloquium
  •  March 31, 2022: Author notifications (papers, workshops, tutorials, panels)
  •  April 1, 2022: Doctoral colloquium notification
  •  April 15, 2022: Posters and demo proposals due
  •  April 24, 2022: Poster/demo author notifications
  •  April 25, 2022: Final version of manuscripts due in EasyChair
  •  May 1, 2022: Early registration begins
  •  May 20, 2022: Early registration closes

OVERVIEW OF TRACKS


TRACK 1: Collaborative Intelligence: Humans, Crowds, and Machines

Track chairs: Helen K. Liu (National Taiwan University, Taiwan), Seok-jin Eom (Seoul National University, South-Korea), Lisa Schmidthuber (Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria). 

The collaborative intelligence track aims to investigate how human, crowd, and machine can complement each other to enhance public services and policies, such as healthcare services, citizen-government communication, bias and discretion reduction, smart city planning, etc. However, while the adoption of AI may enhance the citizens’ participation experience, there are potential ethical issues and implementation challenges in designing an optimal collaborative intelligence that includes both human collective intelligence and artificial intelligence. The collaborative intelligence track invites researchers and practitioners to accumulate scholarly papers that explore the interactions of human, crowd, and/or machine. Possible topics include strategies for collaborative intelligence or platforms in the public sector, designs for machine and human interaction in public services or policy making, comparisons of outputs and bias from AI, experts, and/or collective intelligence, values in collaborative intelligence management and governance, best practices of collaborative intelligence in the public sector, ethical concerns or guidelines for applying collective intelligence, or other similar topics and relevant approaches. 


TRACK 2: Cross-border governance and service impact assessment

Track Chairs: Robert Krimmer (Tartu University, Estonia), Mihkel Solvak (Tartu University, Estonia) & Carsten Schmidt (Tartu University, Estonia)

The Single Digital Gateway Regulation (SDGR) mandates that cross-border access must be provided to 21 public services in 30 European countries by the end of 2023. Providing such pervasive cross-border services requires the integration of many complex systems of various levels of technological development from different levels of governance across the EU and the EEA countries. Furthermore, making such changes of scope can have many different positive and negative effects, intended and unintended. For these reasons, ideally every such policy intervention would be followed by an impact assessment (IA) and redesign effort. The advent of cross-border digital services presents the opportunity to extend this logic beyond national borders, though also introducing new challenges in data access. Designing service delivery channels with later impact assessment in mind will allow for precise evidence-based service redesign to target services more accurately, speed up the policy evaluation cycle and result in more efficient and effective cross-border governance. Developing and piloting impact assessments and proposing automation of IA in a cross-border setting is highly relevant for effective cross-border joint service governance.


TRACK 3: Digital Government and Sustainable Development Goals 

Track chairs: Rony Medaglia (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark) & Gianluca Misuraca (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain)

The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are shaping the global agenda in multiple areas, including public opinion, policy, and research. The 17 SDGs, detailed in 169 targets, have an ambition of linking separate goals of sustainable development across different areas, into a unitary vision. The main consequence of this new vision has been to move the focus beyond the individual instances of e.g., environmental impacts of human activities, or economic inequalities, and to link them in a coherent system within the framework of the Agenda for the Sustainable Development 2030. 

Digital government can act as enabler to sustainability, equity and social inclusion and it represents a cross-cutting objective across several SDGs at both sectoral and horizontal level, with a crucial importance in particular for the goal 16 that aims to ´Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels´. This track invites contributions focusing on the potential benefits and challenges of digital government in supporting the achievement of SDGs and the role of digital technologies to sustain policy developments at both horizontal and sectoral level, including in particular the impact on democratic innovation and institutional reforms of governance systems.


TRACK 4: Human-centric innovation in smart cities

Track chairs: Bettina Distel (University of Münster, Germany), Hendrik Scholta (University of Münster, Germany), & Tobias Brandt (University of Münster, Germany)

In the digital age, the transformation of a city to a smart city is in great motion as also indicated by the EU mission on climate-neutral and smart cities. This transformation goes beyond the pure digitization of services and aim to achieve a more efficient, ecological and socially inclusive city. While advocates of these developments highlight positive effects on public value creation, the fast developments call critics to the scene. The pace with which new possibilities are evaluated and oftentimes put into practice, casts shadows on the idea of smart cities, sometimes turning it into dark dystopian image. The creation of a smart city risks becoming a technocratic frenzy where too much focus on technologies puts human beings in the background. This does not only entail questions of data (ab)use and data security. More than that, the interconnection and use of massive amounts of data in smart city ecosystems challenges human decision and sense-making authority. In the public sector in particular, balancing digital innovation on the one hand and human-centricity on the other hand becomes a major challenge in smart cities for both researchers and practitioners.


TRACK 5: Social Media and Government 

Track chairs: Rodrigo Sandoval-Almazan (Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico) & J. Ignacio Criado (university of Madrid, Spain)

The evolution of social media and government deserves continuous attention from the scholarly community. This area of digital government research is one of the most dynamic as new platforms, metrics, audiences, uses, or impacts emerge almost every year. This year, during the COVID-19 crisis, we witnessed different governments tackling emergent threats coming from misinformation attempts. Also, TikTok, among other social platforms, has abruptly emerged as a global player in the entertainment sector, promoting government and other actors to engage with new audiences. Finally, new political challenges, including the polarization of the public sphere, raise concerns about the potential harm of social media for our democratic communities. For this year’s theme, we especially will welcome papers related to the interplay between smart cities and local governments, politics, and social media. At the same time, we are open to other aspects of governments’ smartness and social media, including theoretical and conceptual advancements, methodological and data innovations, or case and practical implications coming from diverse contexts. We will welcome papers on both traditional and emerging issues, including opportunities, risks, and policies in intelligent cities for social media deployment, social media motivations to use and audiences, political mobilizations and polarization, social media contents and sentiment analysis, fake news, artificial intelligence-based systems and virtual agents in government, instant messaging apps in government, entertainment platforms for political engagement, or social media for crisis and emergency management. Also, we will continue working on including exciting research questions, rigorous empirical studies, and in-depth case studies to enrich the theories, research methods, data, and available cases and practical applications in this research area.


TRACK 6: Sustainable Smart Cities

Track chairs: Leonidas Anthopoulos (University of Thessaly, Greece), Dongwook Kim (Seoul National University, Korea) & Soon Ae Chun (City University of New York, USA)

Smart city mission deals with supporting cities become more friendly and sustainable against current and future challenges like the climate change and the community’s prosperity. The recent COVID-19 pandemic showed how fragile the local communities are, especially in big cities, and the ICT appeared to play a crucial role, but with a limited smart city contribution. This effect raised the importance of city resilience, which goes beyond the known environmental threats to social and economic ones. The post-covid period finds cities under their mitigation phase, where communities try to return to normality and to realize how important their preparedness and planning are for future disasters. As such, cities try to assess their resilient performance and to secure their local systems against known and unknown threats. Thus, both their efficiency and sufficiency are crucial to be determined and ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) circularity appears to be a new promise for their future, with the use of smartness and against it (i.e., with e-waste management). 

This track invites research and practices in inclusive, circular and resilient smart cities, addressing topics such as intelligence for circularity and resilience in cities; enhancing diverse digital skills toward digital maturity; making the citizens data and digital service prosumers; bringing the local community closer to the local digital and circular transformation and generate new jobs; enabling collaboration and governance that make everyone understand its role and commit in this transition that transforms smart cities to intelligent spaces, circular and resilient to adverse events.


TRACK 7: Artificial Intelligence for Governments of the Future

Track chairs: Sehl Mellouli (Université Laval, Canada), Marijn Janssen (Delft University of Technology) & Adegboyega Ojo (Maynooth University, Ireland)

Artificial intelligence (AI) can be viewed as the way to simulate human behavior by machines. It is based on a set of algorithms and techniques such as deep learning, neural networks, expert systems, or probabilistic models. Even if it is a new technology, it is attracting more and more attention with the huge amount of data made available by new technologies and users. Government is one the areas that is paying attention to AI to tackle the amount of data it has. In fact, AI provides new tools and techniques for governments to exploit the vast amount of data they have. Governments are not only looking for new applications based on AI, for automated decisions, and improving policy-making, but also at the impacts that AI can have on different levels of government. The purpose of this track is to investigate how AI can be implemented and adopted by governments at different levels and what AI can add to government.


TRACK 8: Beyond Bureaucracy: disruptive approaches to e-democracy and e-government

Track chairs: Alois Paulin (University of Public Administration and Finance Ludwigsburg, Germany) , Robert Müller-Török (University of Public Administration and Finance Ludwigsburg, Germany) & Zach Bastick (University of Oxford, UK)

The “Beyond Bureaucracy” track explores innovations in e-government and e-democracy that place the citizen at the center of governance. While traditional lines of inquiry at the intersection of politics and technology focus on enhancing or supporting existing political institutions, there is an underexplored opportunity for citizens to use technology to control government more directly. Internet optimists have long-anticipated new, digital models of self-governance, including representative, direct, liquid, anarchic models. Critics have argued that technology cannot safely or desirably support greater citizen involvement. This track covers all aspects of direct, futuristic, radical, exploratory, and critical approaches to digital governance. These include the (un)desirability of using technology to support citizen self-governance; challenges to self-governance through technology; theoretical and empirical proposals; assessments of technologies to support governance; the impact of developing digital phenomena on self-governance (misinformation, bots, digital collective intelligence); and the ethical, technological, social, and political implications of existing and potential future models of public governance. The “Beyond Bureaucracy” serves as a platform for pro/contra deliberations on the near and distant challenges and potentials of e-democracy.


TRACK 9: Data-driven Governance through Information Retrieval and Decision Support Systems

Track chairs: Charalampos Alexopoulos (University of the Aegean, Greece) & Shefali Virkar (Danube University Krems, Austria)

Data-driven Governance corresponds to a new way of accessing, retrieving and analysing appropriate and/or relevant information towards more effective and efficient policy and decision making. This involves the information retrieval from various sources and domains, the semantic annotation of data and text as well as the processing of large quantities through high performance computing. However, the potential for synergies between sophisticated decision support technologies and advanced big data search and retrieval infrastructures has not yet been fully explored. The purpose of this track is to critically examine this interrelationship in the pursuit of improved digital governance and the associated benefits, challenges and risks. This track encourages the submission of high-quality and original papers on the theory, experimentation, and practice of information retrieval and decision support systems towards better (data-driven) governance; this primarily includes sources of textual information but could also include numerical data and multi-modal information. This track addresses a range of similar or related research questions, topics and practices regarding sophisticated information retrieval infrastructures and advanced decision systems, support tools and services.


TRACK 10: GovTech & Data strategy planning

Track Chairs: Nitesh Bharosa (Delft University of Technology), Hun-Yeong Kwon (Korea University, South Korea) & Dirk Draheim (TalTech, Estonia)

GovTech refers to socio-technical solutions provided by market parties for facilitating processes in the public sector. Across the globe, market parties are providing GovTech solutions to citizens and public agencies that surpass the functionalities and user experience of existing digital government systems. Many GovTech solutions build on advanced technologies such as digital wallets, trust services, AI and blockchain to deliver more tailored and user-friendly services. However, many governments are struggling with policy development on GovTech. This requires comprehensive agendas of national data strategies development. The role of a data strategy is to provide departments and agencies with a roadmap for more strategic use of data. Looking at the status quo, while data has become a key enabler of digital innovation and economic advance, the world is competing in strategical renovation considering data use, open, assessment, risk management, and dysfunction control. This track invites papers focusing on this niche in GovTech and national data strategies. 


TRACK 11: Organizational Factors, Adoption Issues and Digital Government Impacts

Track chairs: Jing Zhang (Clark University, USA), Chris Hinnant (Florida State University, USA) & Lei Zheng (Fudan University, China)

The adoption and implementation of new ICTs by public organizations have been influenced by organizational factors such as the availability of resources (i.e. funding, infrastructure, technological knowledge, and personnel), leadership, trust, stakeholder involvement, organization’s structure and culture, as well as inter-organizational dynamics. Similarly, the adoption of ICTs in government and society has generated important impacts on the organizational processes, effectiveness, and innovativeness of public organizations, as well as the new governance structure of the government and the smartness of the society. This track solicits research that examines the organizational factors that influence the adoption and implementation, and impact of new and emerging innovative technologies such as smart city, artificial intelligence, data analytics, big data, open data, social media, citizen-centric technologies, and other novel technologies that rely on open and large data sets. Furthermore, this track seek research on the adoption of innovative policies or practices that seek to facilitate the strategic use of various ICTs by public organizations.


TRACK 12. Blockchain-based applications for e-Government

Track Chairs: Jolien Ubacht (Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands), Svein Ølnes (Western Norway Research Institute, Norway) & Sélinde van Engelenburg (Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands)

Blockchain (BC) and distributed ledger technology (DLT) to revolutionize government processes. These applications can improve the efficiency of information exchanges (e.g. leading to less fraud and less mistakes than paper-based registrations) and can contribute to an inclusive society (e.g. by means of digital identities). The implementation of blockchain-based applications requires solid analysis of the entire information chain, including the involved stakeholders and extant information architectures. In addition, blockchain initiatives have implications for citizen trust, privacy, inclusion and participation that need to be addressed in the design of the blockchain based applications. This track invites research that explores the design, impact and potential of blockchain based applications.


TRACK 13. Legal Informatics

Track Chairs: Peter Parycek (Frauenhofer Fokus, Germany), Charalabidis Yannis (University of the Aegean, Greece) & Anna-Sophie Novak (Danube University Krems, Austria)

The application of ICT technologies in the administrative and legal field pose great challenges for both technicians and legal professionals. Additionally, there is the question of how these applied technologies can and/or must be legally regulated. Many of these technologies rely on the use of large amounts of data. In this context, questions arise as to how data usage might be regulated in order to generate the greatest possible benefit for society. With these challenges in mind, we invite papers on the legal, technical, ethical, theoretical and practical questions that arise within the multidisciplinary field of legal informatics. This track invites research and practices concerning the theory and interdisciplinary foundations for the use of artificial intelligence techniques in the legal domain, legal implications of big data applications (challenges to privacy, autonomy, governance, equity, and fairness), a legislative framework for legal informatics on a European and national level and better regulation. Specific interest areas include the field of privacy (policies, regulations, strategies, recommendations), models of legal and ethical knowledge, including concepts (legal ontologies), rules, cases, principles, values, procedures and society models, legal interactions of autonomous agents and digital institutions and applications and use cases.


Track 14. Digital Transformation in Governments

Track chairs:  Beatriz Barreto Brasileiro Lanza (CTG SUNY & IDB, Brazil), Thiago José Tavares Ávila ( Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil), Maria Alexandra Cunha *Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil)

Digital transformation has become an essential part of the government’s strategic agenda, both at national and sub-national levels. Such governments seek to offer services through digital platforms with integrated citizen identification systems, digitization of governmental processes, with respect to the privacy of personal data, and digital inclusion of the most vulnerable population. However, digital transformation initiatives at the subnational level tend to present specific aspects when compared to national initiatives. On the one hand, this track highlights the challenges faced by subnational digital transformation initiatives in the public sector, as well as national governments that have acted to develop and integrate national digital transformation considering subnational aspects. On the other hand, it seeks to understand the capacities supporting the digital transformation at the subnational level. The track’s objectives are: a) to identify real-world examples/cases of digital transformation projects at the subnational levels (states, regions, Länder, provinces, municipalities, etc.); b) discuss the challenges to develop a digital and integrated government considering national and subnational aspects, especially in federative countries; c) seek to explain these cases in the context of existing or new theoretical frameworks, and, d) create actionable recommendations for researchers, professional developers, and digital government practitioners at the national and subnational level.


PRE-CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND TUTORIALS

dg.o workshops are half- or full-day facilitated discussions. Discussions are typically stimulated by short presentations by workshop participants. Individuals proposing workshops will assume the responsibility of identifying and selecting participants for the workshop and for conducting workshop activities. dg.o tutorials are half- or full-day presentations or hands-on experiences offering deeper insight into the scientific or government domains, research topics or methods, technologies or field experiences of veteran digital government researchers and practitioners.


PANELS

Panel proposals may address themes or topics related to any of the tracks for the conference. Additionally, we welcome panel proposals that put a spotlight on practice and application. Proposals from practitioners at all levels of government featuring experiences with, perspectives on, and evaluations of digital government practice are encouraged. Individuals interested in submitting panel proposals are invited to consult the panel co-chairs about their ideas prior to developing their submissions.


POSTERS AND SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS

The poster session, held in conjunction with the system demonstrations, allows presenters to discuss research in progress, application projects, or government policies and program initiatives in one-to-one conversations with other participants at the conference.


DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM

The doctoral colloquium is a full-day and highly interactive full-day forum in which Ph.D. students meet and discuss their work with each other and with senior faculty from a variety of disciplines associated with digital government research. We welcome applicants from a broad range of research areas relevant to digital government.


PUBLICATIONS

All accepted management or policy papers, research papers, student papers, panels, posters, and system demonstrations will be published and included in the ACM digital library and the DBLP bibliography system. Selected papers will be invited for a journal special issue. There will be several special issues related to the conference, including:

  •  Government Information Quarterly
  •  Digital Government: Research and Practice
  •  Transforming Government: People, Process, Policy
  •  International Journal of E-Government Research
  •  Information Polity
  •  International Journal of E-Planning Research
  •  International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age

BEST PAPER AWARDS

Outstanding achievement awards will be presented in the categories Research papers, Management, Case Study and Policy papers, Posters, and System demonstrations. Papers that reflect the main theme of the conference, Digital Innovations for Public Values: Inclusive Collaboration and Community, will be preferred. Other selection criteria include the interdisciplinary and innovative nature of the work, its contribution to and balance between theory (rigor) and practice (relevance), the importance and reach of the topic, and the quality of the writing for communicating to a broad audience.


SUBMISSION TYPES AND FORMATS

  •  Research papers
  •  Management, Case Study, or Policy papers
  •  Panel descriptions
  •  Posters
  •  System demonstrations
  •  Pre-Conference tutorial proposals
  •  Pre-Conference workshop proposals
  •  Doctoral colloquium application

Submission Site: https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=dgo2022

Submissions need to follow the guidelines established for the dg.o conference. Detailed instruction and ACM conference proceedings template will be available on conference website http://dgsociety.org/dgo-2022/ under “submission guidelines”.

Research, Management, Case Study, and Policy papers will be reviewed through a double-blind review process. Therefore, author names and contact information must be omitted from all submissions. Authors must identify the topic(s) being addressed in the paper to assist the program committee in the review process.

All other submissions should use ACM proceedings submission template but include author names.

At least one author is expected to attend the conference to present the work. All accepted submissions require at least one author to be registered for the conference for it to be included in the conference proceedings. The authors of more than two papers can register for and present at most two co-authored papers. Third paper on, some other coauthor registration and presentation are required.

Research papers – blind review: These submissions report innovative digital government research results in the form of a formal scholarly paper. Papers on any digital government topic and all research methodologies are welcome. Relevance to digital government problems, goals, or policies must be explicit. (Limit of approximately 8,000 words)

Management, case study, or policy papers – blind review: These submissions describe and evaluate practical digital government projects or initiatives, discuss major policy themes, or present and evaluate management approaches to digital government initiatives and programs. (Limit of approximately 5,000 words)

Panels: Proposals should include information about the theme and goals of the panel, a summary of the digital government issues or questions that the panel will address, statements about the value of the discussion to conference attendees and how well suited the topic is to a panel discussion. In addition, the proposal should include information about the expertise of the moderator and panelists in the selected issues. Please include names, institutional affiliations, addresses, email, and phone contact numbers of the contact person, moderator, and presenter(s). (Limit of approximately 1,300 words)

Posters: Summaries should outline the nature of the research, policy, or project and describe why the work will be of interest to dg.o attendees. Posters prepared for the conference should measure 36″ x 48″. Each poster station is provided with a table and an easel. Selected poster submissions may be asked to give an oral presentation in the conference sessions. (Limit of approximately 1,300 words)

System Demonstrations: System demonstrations are held concurrently with the poster session to the accompaniment of good food and professional fellowship. The 1-2 page summaries should outline the nature of the system and describe why the demonstration is likely to be of interest to dg.o attendees. Demonstrations of interest include systems under development or in active use in research or practice domains. Submissions should include authors’ names and contact information according to that format. Each station is provided with a table, an easel, and Internet access. Monitors will be available for rent. Selected demo submissions may be asked to give an oral presentation in the conference sessions. (Limit of approximately 1,300 words)

Pre-conference Tutorials: dg.o tutorials are half- or full-day presentations that offer deeper insight into e-government research, practice, research methodologies, technologies or field experience. In particular, tutorials provide insights into good practices, research strategies, uses of particular technologies such as social media, and other insights into e-government that would benefit researchers and practitioners. (Limit of approximately 1,300 words)

Pre-conference Workshops: We invite workshop proposals on any e-government research or management topic. Workshops are half- or full-day events intended to offer interactive sessions, in which the workshop host and participants discuss and engage in activities designed to facilitate joint learning and further exploration of a particular subject. Individuals proposing workshops will assume the responsibility of identifying and selecting participants for the workshop and for conducting workshop activities. (Limit of approximately 1,300 words)

Doctoral Colloquium: The doctoral colloquium is a highly interactive full-day forum in which Ph.D. students meet and discuss their work with each other and with senior faculty from a variety of disciplines associated with digital government research. Ph.D. students can submit papers describing their planned or in-progress doctoral dissertation covering any research areas relevant to digital government. Ideally, student participants will have completed one or two years of doctoral study or progressed far enough in their research to have a structured proposal idea and preliminary findings, but have not reached the stage of defending their dissertations. We expect students at this stage of study will gain the most value from feedback on their work and the more general discussions of doctoral programs and scholarly careers. See the detailed announcement for complete information on the colloquium and how to submit an application. Material provided in applications to the doctoral colloquium will not be published in the proceedings. However, we encourage students to submit finished research to one of the paper tracks or as a poster or demo. (10 pages, not including references, tables and figures)

 

CONFERENCE CHAIRS

  • Dongwook Kim, Seoul National University, South-Korea
  • Marijn Janssen, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands 
  • Robert Krimmer, Tartu University, Estonia

 

PROGRAM CHAIRS

  • Sungsoo Hwang, Yeungnam University, South-Korea
  • Loni Hagen, University of South-Florida, USA
  • Mihkel Solvak, Tartu University, Estonia

 

DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM CHAIRS

  • J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, University at Albany, SUNY, USA
  • Ida Lindgren, Linköping University, Sweden
  • Gabriela Viale Pereira, Danube University Krems, Austria

 

REGISTRATION CHAIRS

  • Lukasz Porwol, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland
  • Catherine Dumas, Simmons University, USA

 

FINANCE CHAIR

  • Andrea Kavanaugh, Virginia Tech, USA