General E-Government and E-Governance Track

The track serves as an umbrella for all e-government (EGOV) and e-governance-related topics except the dedicated-topic tracks. E-government research, also increasingly referred to as Digital Government Research, has developed over the past decades into a mature domain of multidisciplinary study with its own identity and profile. In this track, EGOV foundations and theories are explored. Moreover, the track puts special emphasis on studying a multitude of topics and areas of practice related to EGOV. We solicit for a variety of research approaches. This track covers several special topics in e-government/digital government research.

Areas of focus and interest include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Foundations of e-government and e-governance research
  • E-government theories, views, methods and frameworks
  • Interdisciplinary approaches (e.g. intersection with other disciplines such as information science, information systems research, computer science, public administration, and political science among others)
  • Digital government strategies
  • Strategies and policies for ICT-enabled public administration overhaul
  • Public administration back and front-office overhaul (cases, practices, and lessons learned)
  • Stakeholder and change management in government
  • Digital transformation in the public sector
  • Innovation management, transformational government
  • Smart government and smart governance
  • Smart governance as enabler of transformation
  • Management of public-private partnerships
  • E-government project success and failure
  • Public information governance (strategies, information sharing practices, privacy practices)
  • Policies and decision-making in the context of e-government
  • Data-driven decision and policy-making
  • Public records management (challenges, opportunities, and cases)
  • Public sector information management (challenges and opportunities, and cases)
  • Detection of and protection against misinformation and disinformation (for example, rumor control)
  • Intergovernmental integration and interoperation
  • Crisis and emergency management in the context of e-government
  • Crisis information management systems and their uses
  • Emergency operations and governmental coordination
  • ICT interoperability and ICT integration in government
  • Government-sponsored and/or operated public alert systems (pandemic and other alerts)
  • Post-Covid-19 lessons from the use of and with regard to government ICTs
  • Pandemic-induced innovations in the public sector
  • Safe public online access, inclusion, privacy and online identity management
  • ICT portfolio management in the public sector
  • ICT insourcing versus outsourcing approaches
  • Public sector CIOs and/or COOs (roles, impact, span of control, issues, and challenges)
  • Public sector ICT workforce (management, recruitment, retention, compensation, etc.)
  • E-Government architectures (vertical, horizontal, and networked)
  • Enterprise ICT management initiatives
  • Managing and upgrading public sector legacy systems
  • Integration of online and inline services (opportunities, challenges, and cases)
  • Disruptive technologies in the public sector (e.g artificial intelligence, distributed ledger technology/blockchain, and the internet of things)
  • Cross-jurisdictional alliances for online government services
  • ICT-enabled transnational government collaboration
  • Special topics (for example, ICT-related legislation, ICT4D, e-justice, e-rule-making, etc.)
  • Geographical information systems in government
  • Design approaches for ICT solutions in the public sector
  • ICT usage, acceptance, measurement, benchmarking, and benefit management
  • Online performance metrics for public services
  • Return on investment and sustainability of ICT investments

Track Chairs

  • Marijn Janssen, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands (lead)
  • Ida Lindgren, Linköping University, Sweden
  • Gabriela Viale Pereira, Danube University Krems, Austria

General e-Democracy & e-Participation track

The general e-democracy & e-participation track aims to present recent developments in electronic participation and digital engagement covering all relevant technical, political and social aspects.

E-democracy and e-participation and are multidisciplinary fields of study. They are particularly timely and relevant in various contexts focusing on issues such as participatory public service design engagement, open government data, social media interactions, engagement in co-design and co-delivery of services and top-down and bottom-up initiatives related to economic, societal, public and welfare issues.

This is a multi-disciplinary track that aims to bring together researchers from disciplines in order to present and discuss topics related to e-participation and e-democracy, discuss new ideas, meet other researchers and practitioners, and to facilitate future collaborations. We welcome theoretical papers, qualitative and quantitative papers, case studies, critical analyses, and encourage authors to address challenges that can lead to further developments in this area. Areas of focus and interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Foundations of e-democracy and e-participation research including theories, methods, models and approaches
  • Enabling electronic decision-making (e-participation, e-voting) in times of a pandemic, such and COVID-19
  • Advances in participatory policy making using policy modeling, simulation, impact assessment and visualization methods and tools
  • New forms of analog and digital participation, participation and communication platforms, mobile media, social media and applications for citizens, Living Labs, innovation labs
  • Enhancing democracy and public participation using ICT and new technologies, AI,  block chains, etc.
  • Analysis of digital interactions between citizens, businesses, governments, service providers and other stakeholders
  • Advances in online deliberation and discourse, participatory budgeting, e-consultation, e-polling, and e-legislation, e-electioneering, e-campaigning and e-voting
  • Impact of big and open data on public engagement, sustainability of e-democracy, e-participation and citizen engagement
  • Analyses of good practices and key factors for success, motivational factors, and  reasons for failures
  • The impact of transparency, digital literacy, digital competences, and open access on  public engagement and democracy
  • Design and co-creation of participatory public services
  • Case studies on top-down and bottom-up initiatives in e-participation and e-democracy
  • The role of e-democracy and e-participation in national and global crisis situations
  • Citizen inclusion and digital divide: gender, age, education, etc.
  • New approaches to direct democracy, Inclusive e-governance in the context of Regional smart specialization
  • E-democracy and e-participation projects: design, implementation, evaluation, quality and impact
  • Impact assessment and public value considerations in real-world decision making
  • Digital research methods and big data applications for e-participation and e-democracy research
  • Critical perspectives: failures, bad experiences, co-destruction, digital hype but not reality, fringe groups

Track Chairs

  • Robert Krimmer (lead), Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
  • Noella Edelmann, Danube University Krems, Austria
  • Peter Parycek, Fraunhofer Fokus, Germany / Danube-University Krems, Austria

ICT and Sustainability Development Goals

In 2015 the United Nations presented 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the heart of these goals are themes of poverty, inequality, health, discrimination, inclusion, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice. The Agenda for Sustainable Development calls upon governments, NGOs, private parties and citizens to take action that contribute to the realization of these very ambitious and far-reaching universal targets by 2030.

Digital technologies are seen as essential in achieving SDG targets. can support the implementation of policies and processes that contribute to reaching these sustainable development goals in various ways. Information exchange between governmental organizations (G2G), between business and government (B2G) as well as between governments and citizens (G2C) can support the formulation and monitoring of policies to reach SDGs. Artificial Intelligence, open data and data analytics play an important role in the formulation of policies and the evaluation in terms of reaching the SDG targets. ICT-based applications such as digital identities, cryptocurrencies, open data or e-consultations and voting can give citizens the means to actively play a role in reaching for SDGs that address financial inclusion, inequality, poverty eradication, food security and health. The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated digital transformation in many sectors, yet the effects on for instance the world of work or education are not yet fully comprehended.

However, digital technologies also raise discussions on their use that can be at odds with SDGs. For instance the energy consumption of cryptocurrencies versus energy reduction goals or having no access to digital information versus solving inequality and poverty or the use of privacy-intruding digital technologies versus health improvement and well-being. Many are concerned about the effects of digital technologies, such as platformization and automation, on the labour market and the ensuing inequalities and job polarization.

In this track we invite authors to submit original research that explicitly addresses the contribution of digital technologies for SDGs. We especially encourage critical perspectives on the positive effects, as well the negative externalities, of digital technologies in terms of SDGs. We provide for a non-exclusive list of themes and topics, such as:

  • An overview of the contribution of digital technologies for realizing a particular SDG;
  • Green information systems (re)design to combat CO2 emissions from ICT usage;
  • Case studies that illustrate how digitization supports the implementation of public policies that address a SDG. For example how digital data sharing can assist in monitoring the effects of public policies;
  • Critical review of the way(s) in which digital technologies are at odds with SDGs, e.g. privacy and security risks;
  • Information policies for dealing with climate change, pollution, in areas like healthcare and caregiving, food and agriculture, disaster prevention, and green economies;
  • Information-sharing between public and private stakeholders to monitor and support extended producer responsibility or policies aimed at circular business models;
  • Cases of ICT-enabled public consultations for formulating sustainable policies;
  • The use of open data for resilience and disaster management;
  • E-monitoring of circular goods and materials for compliance with national policies for a circular economy;
  • Teaching cases in the field of ICT for sustainability.
  • Ethical questions and dilemmas posed by digital technologies in light of SDGs

We welcome a diversity in research designs, approaches and methodologies.

Track Chairs

  • Jolien Ubacht, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands (lead)
  • Rony Medaglia, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
  • Anja Wüst, Berner Fachhochschule, Switzerland
  • Iryna Susha, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Digital Society Track

Governments’ and public administrations’ adaptation, implementation, and spearheading of emerging digital technologies can cause disruptive transformation throughout the entire society. The utilization of new technologies influences internal processes within public administration and its external interaction with citizens and businesses, including the roles these actors play. The emerging digital infrastructure and environment in which these stakeholders interact also puts society in front of new challenges due to associated rebound and unintended side effects. This track, therefore, focuses on the relationship between the involved stakeholders and their strategies and incentives as they implement these digital technologies and contribute to the development of a digital society.

Areas of focus and interest include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Agent-based modelling and digital agents, e.g., spatio-temporal understanding of social networks, stakeholder interaction, and the interrelation with public policies
  • Algorithmic society: e.g., informational filter bubble; participation by algorithmic decisions; coping strategies to overcome exclusion; negotiations between stakeholders through algorithms; effects on (e-)governance
  • Mydata/data sensitivity: e.g., increased control/transparency over personal data/information; dominant and subordinate positions towards the creation of compact digital spaces
  • Value-realization: e.g., accountability and transparency on when and how the values put forward in policies and public discourses are realized (theoretical and methodological constructions to critically review grand narratives of pervasive digital transformation)
  • Digital sustainability: e.g., digital technologies in public administrations towards sustainability; SDGs and digital transformation; participatory design practices/stakeholder interaction
  • Digital skills and education in the public sector: e.g., curricula and training concepts for government 3.0; transdisciplinary co-creation models organization learning in public administration; bridging the (digital) gap between systems-world of professionals and life-world of citizens with semantic interoperability
  • Digital infrastructure: e.g., the entanglement of societal and technical infrastructure (IoT); norm critical aspects of data/data pattern, once-only
  • Digital humanism and digital ethics: e.g., rebound effects of digital technologies in the public sphere; cultural and social disruption due to digital paradigm shifts
  • Once-only principle: e.g., drivers and barriers towards European implementation, use cases for business and citizens, single digital gateway, digital single market
  • Collaboration in ecosystems: e.g., mechanisms for ecosystem governance, conditions for ecosystems to emerge, different actor roles in an ecosystem

Track Chairs

  • Thomas Lampoltshammer, Danube University Krems, Austria (lead)
  • Katarina L. Gidlund, Mid Sweden University, Sweden
  • Lieselot Danneels, Ghent University, Belgium

Emerging Issues and Innovations Track

Innovation and application of emerging technologies is now more and more in the thinking of Governments at all levels. While it would be easy to consider the public sector as being less flexible or slow in adoption, presentations at recent EGOV-CeDEM-ePart conferences proved that one should not come to such a conclusion too easily. Upcoming technologies, innovative organizational solutions, or new avenues of involvement in public sector activities seem to be more commonplace – along with the potential issues and challenges that come with such endeavours. Policy-makers and public sector officials are now expected to embrace change, consider digital transformation, or improve governance practices. At the same time, public sector researchers are also influenced by new views, methods, and techniques.

The goal of this track is to provide a platform for the discussion of new ideas, issues, problems, and solutions, that keep entering the public sphere. Ideas that are emerging but might not fit other conference tracks are also welcome. Focus may include but are not limited to:

  • Looking ahead into social innovation
  • The future of government, policy-making and democracy
  • Global challenges that go beyond nation states (such as migration, climate change and so on) and which require international collaboration of individual governments;
  • Digital transformation in public sector context;
  • The future of digital governance;
  • Public values in transforming the government;
  • The role of government in eCities and sustainable living;
  • The role of the public sector in Human-Centered Society;
  • Self-Service Structures for Inclusion;
  • Public-private sector collaboration and integration;
  • Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs), smart contracts and blockchain;
  • Preparing for the policy challenges of future technologies;
  • Regulating misinformation;
  • New technologies for automated decision-making;
  • The future public sector use and regulation of latest AI solutions;
  • Public use as well as regulations of industry 4.0 and the internet of things;
  • The relationships of governments and Fintech;
  • Upcoming issues of eVoting including application of digital signatures in the public sector;
  • Online public community building;
  • Utilization of digital billboards;
  • Latest trends in co-creation and service delivery;
  • Discussion of new research methods that have not been applied in this context;
  • Application of role theory in the analysis of public sector functions and processes;
  • New trends in public sector research;
  • Forward looking insights from case studies – let it be successful or failed experiments.

Track Chairs

  • Csaba Csáki, Corvinus Business School, Hungary (lead)
  • Francesco Mureddu, The Lisbon Council, Belgium
  • Marijn Janssen, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands

AI, Data Analytics & Automated Decision Making Track

As the Fourth Industrial Revolution creates new tools for conducting economic activities in the private sector, it also provides the public sector with tools for creating public value and engaging in digital transformation. While ICT has been fundamental for digitalising public services, the public sector increasingly relies on internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), (big) data analytics (BDA), Blockchain, 5G, Adaptive manufacturing / 3D technologies, wireless and related technologies to accelerate and increase the impact of digital transformation.

As citizens are spending more time on the Internet, their digital footprints are becoming easier to collect, forming massive interconnected networks of data. Innovative methods and tools to analyse such data and understand policy implications are in urgent demand. In particular, open data and open government initiatives can create bigger synergy and impact when integrated with new technologies.

However, the use of new technologies by government has some serious ethical and policy implications. Complementing or replacing human-made public service with AI, automating decisions of consequence to people’s lives, harvesting interconnected data about individuals, etc. raise the risk that exclusion, injustice and privacy violations can happen on a massive scale. Decision made through (Big) Data Analytics and policy modelling tool may generate optimal solutions from an economic perspective, but not from a social inclusion perspective, or give rise to transparency and fairness concerns. Privacy and security issues with regards to citizens’ everyday digital footprints also have legal and policy implications.

This track invites papers that can advance theoretical, practical and policy questions on those issues. Papers are expected to address the topics including but not limited to:

  • Adoption of robotics-based public services
  • AI and labour displacement in the public sector
  • AI applications in the public sector
  • eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) in the public sector
  • AI and policy monitoring and analytics
  • AI-enabled smart cities
  • AI in government and discriminatory bias
  • Big data analytics for policy modelling
  • Co-creation via AI and big data analytics
  • Computational analysis methods for open data
  • Consequential decisions and AI in government
  • Decision support system for policy makers
  • Digital transformation via AI
  • Disruptive services in public sector
  • Impact of AI on social cohesion
  • Legal and ethical aspects of AI in the public sector
  • IoT applications in public services
  • Privacy issues in big data analytics
  • Fairness, safety, transparency of AI in the public sector
  • Qualitative policy modelling
  • Quality of AI-enabled public services

Track Chairs

  • Euripidis Loukis, University of Aegean, Greece (lead)
  • Evangelos Kalampokis, University of Macedonia, Greece
  • Habin Lee, Brunel University London, United Kingdom

Smart Cities (Government, Districts, Communities & Regions) Track

Urban growth and natural and health disasters have introduced important challenges in the urban context, pushing cities towards a mandatory digital transition to a smart environment. In short, the transformation of these communities has become a top priority for city governments and communities and offers great promise for improved well-being and prosperity. However, significant challenges have also arisen at the complex intersection of technology and society. Prior research has demonstrated that cities with greater digital maturity allow them to develop more resilient service management systems and supply chains, resulting in the emergence of cities that are more agile and adaptable.

In addition, smart communities, smart districts, smart cities, and regions are needed to be proactive in adopting a citizen-centric lens to serve the needs of their residents and improve city resilience and well-being of denizens. Although the literature is rich in references to smart cities and communities, it is less developed on the topic of why smart districts and regions need to become smart. Further, the existing literature is fragmented and dispersed among several areas of knowledge, resulting in a lack of a multi-domain holistic view and a lack of critical analysis about the strategies that different cities, districts, and communities follow to become smarter.

Although there is not a one-size-fits-all solution to become smart because it is context-dependent, mainly due to different levels of pressures exerted on housing, energy, transportation, infrastructure, and healthcare due to rapid urbanisation and ageing populations, having a holistic and common approach for achieving could be considered fundamental to guide decision-makers in the digital transformation of societies. This track aims at exploring these issues, paying particular attention to the challenges faced by smart cities, smart districts, and smart communities as well as to the impact of these initiatives on sustainable living. It also aims at focusing on the orchestrated interplay and balance of smart governance practices, smart public administration, smart communities, smart districts, smart resources, and talent leverage in urban, rural, and regional spaces facilitated by novel uses of ICT and other technologies.

As a result, areas of focus and interest to this track include, but are not limited, to the following topics:

  • Smart governance as the foundation to creating smart urban and regional spaces (elements, prerequisites, and principles of smart governance)
  • Smart government (focal areas, current practices, cases, and potential pitfalls)
  • Smart partnerships and smart communities (triple/quadruple helix, public-private partnerships, and citizen participation)
  • Smart cities, smart districts, smart communities, and regions (cases, indicators, assessment, rankings, comparisons, and critical success factors)
  • Collective intelligence for smart cities and communities (smart ideas and solutions for smart cities)
  • Emerging and disruptive technologies in smart communities (big data, open data, data analytics, social media, and networks, Blockchain technologies, etc.)
  • AI and IoT as an enabler for Smart Communities/Smart Cities (infrastructure, transportation, citizen participation, education, governance, environment, health care, safety, security, and energy)
  • AI in smart city design, urban planning, and intelligent infrastructure operation
  • Integrative research that addresses the technological and social dimensions of smart and connected communities
  • Smart homes, intelligent home automation systems, domotics pros and cons
  • Smart grids, smart energy distribution systems, intelligent energy monitoring, implications for climate change
  • Smart environment, traffic management, and transportation (carbonless and clean individual and public mobility)
  • Smart law enforcement theory and practice
  • Smart devices and their novel use in public management and public service delivery
  • Smart (technology-facilitated) practices such as payment systems, identification systems, etc.
  • New cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities in smart technologies
  • SMART as a public-sector planning and management principle (Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Results-based, and Time-bound)
  • Smart university, smart classrooms, and smart delivery of education-related services
  • Quality of life issues in smart cities and smart communities
  • Urban-rural gaps in smart communities, digital divides, and socio-economic disparities
  • Citizen participation in smart cities using new technologies as chatbots or blockchain.
  • Innovation and creativity in smart society development
  • Emerging technologies implementation in cities to face and manage natural disasters and health pandemics

Track Chairs

  • Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar (lead), University of Granada, Spain.
  • Shefali Virkar, Donau-Universität Krems, Austria
  • Joep Cromvoets, KU Leuven, Belgium

Open Data Track

The public sector is increasingly opening its data for everyone to freely reuse. Open data provide unprecedented opportunities for improving decision making, enhancing transparency, creating public value, and boosting the digital economy. This however requires an appropriate social context, innovations in technologies, and appropriate integration of the two.

The Open Data Track aims to better understand and advance research on open data, including both social and technical aspects.

Areas of focus and interest include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Open data definitions;
  • Open data processes, artefacts, and stakeholders and roles;
  • Open data maturity levels and indexes;
  • Open data theories, relation to transparency, accountability and relevant concepts;
  • Open data policy and practice;
  • Open data role in supporting digital transformation policies and principles;
  • Governance of open, big and linked data;
  • Opportunities, drivers and barriers for/to the adoption of open, big and linked data;
  • Open data technologies and software engineering methodologies;
  • Technical frameworks and architectures for open data and metadata;
  • Open data ontologies, linked open data and knowledge graphs, open data visualisation;
  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence technology using open data and mash-ups;
  • Open data formats, standards, APIs and data quality;
  • The role of open data in public sector innovation;
  • Open data enabled models of public service provision;
  • Open data and government as a platform;
  • Open data and public service co-creation;
  • Making open data innovation sustainable;
  • Connecting open data and crowdsourcing;
  • Open data and information literacy;
  • Open data evidence and impacts on society and/or public administration;
  • Value of real-life applications based on open government data;
  • Costs and benefits of providing or using open data; emerging good practices;
  • Public value generation using open data.

Track Chairs

  • Efthimios Tambouris (lead), University of Macedonia, Greece
  • Anneke Zuiderwijk, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
  • J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA

Digital and Social Media Track

Digital and social media are central for government, public administration, democratic and political processes and communication. On the one hand, they are an increasingly important interface between governments, the public sector, and their respective publics. On the other hand, they also play an important role for innovation in the public sector, improving public service delivery and providing opportunities for public participation.

Social media applications and digital tools have also reshaped the nature of collaboration within the public sector, impacting political communication and campaigning. Whilst social media are extensively used in politics and by political figures, public sector organisations still struggle to understand how best to use social media and to develop a social media strategy, how to implement them for operational activities and the digital transformation of the organisation, improve services and achieve change and strategic goals.

Algorithms and the ways in which they are designed can have big impacts on society, as shown by the current ethical debate regarding the major social media companies. This year, we would like to emphasize the concept of algortihmization, and are especially looking for critical papers examining the impact of algorithms on public discourse.

We invite relevant studies on social media in the public sector that draw on conceptual, case study, survey, mixed or other suitable methods.

Areas of focus and interest include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • The impact of algorithms on citizen engagement, polarization and/or echo chambers
  • The impact of algorithms in the dissemination of  mis-/disinformation (fake news)
  • Regulation of algorithms in social and digital media
  • New theoretical perspectives and critical analyses of digital interactions
  • Strategies and policies for the planning and implementation of social media
  • Use of social media analytics in political communication and public organisations
  • Organisational issues relevant to the implementation of social media in democratic contexts and the transformation of public sector organisations
  • Stakeholders and digital publics of government engagement on social media
  • Internal and informal digital networks in public sector organisations
  • The role of social media in digital transformation
  • The use of technology and social media for co-production, crowdsourcing, citizen-sourcing, co-creation and other crowd-based models
  • Mobilisation, social movements and other forms of digital engagement enabled by social media
  • Social media in crisis and emergency management
  • Ethical, privacy, regulatory and policy issues related to social media
  • Evaluation of the impact of social media in various contexts
  • New methods, challenges, and opportunities of social media data

Track chairs

  • Marius Rohde Johannessen (lead), University of South-Eastern Norway
  • Panos Panagiotopoulos, Queen Mary University of London
  • Sara Hofmann, University of Agder

Legal Informatics

Legal informatics allow for a plethora of useful and efficient solutions for the public sector. These applications offer support for administrative decision-making, management of legislation, support for the judiciary and support for governance.

Legal challenges range from constitutional questions to privacy and data protection issues. Especially data protection law has gained significance in the past years. There is no digitization project that does not have to deal intensively with data protection questions.

The domain further faces the challenge to bring logic and formalism into the multitude of legal systems as well as technology for natural language processing and annotation of legal texts, including argument retrieval, and visualization of legal information, data and argumentation.

With these challenges in mind, we invite papers on the legal, technical, societal, ethical, theoretical and practical questions that arise within the multidisciplinary field of legal informatics. Areas of focus and interest include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Legal implications of E-Government: Digital administrative decisions and procedures, digital signature etc;
  • Theory and foundations: Contributions to the theory and interdisciplinary foundations for the use of information systems in the legal domain;
  • Technology: Contributions to the technological advancement of information systems in the legal domain;
  • Legal implications of big data applications: Challenges to privacy, autonomy, governance, equity, and fairness;
  • Privacy: policies, regulations, strategies, recommendations
  • Applications and use cases: implementations of legal informatics systems under realistic conditions;
  • Legislative framework for legal informatics on a European and national level;
  • Improved regulation and transformed regulation processes;
  • Information systems to ensure privacy standards
  • Copyright law in the legal informatics domain
  • Open Data regulations on a European and national level in the context of legal informatics

Track chairs

  • Peter Parycek (lead), Fraunhofer Fokus, Germany
  • Anna-Sophie Novak, Danube University Krems, Austria